The main basis for selecting forging press machine is the technical requirements of the forgings (such as projected area, thickness (height), shape, complexity and precision) and material properties as well as the existing equipment status of the enterprise.
1. According to the characteristics of forging materials
All commonly used forging press machine can meet the requirements of ordinary structural steel forgings. However, for special alloy forgings, the plasticity of the material and the requirements for the structure and performance of the forgings become an important basis for equipment selection. E.g:
1) Aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy and copper alloy forgings
The preferred forging press machine for large die forgings of aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys and copper alloy forgings is hydraulic presses. For small and medium-sized aluminum alloy die forgings, forging screw presses are often available, and nowadays are mostly electric screw presses. In the absence of the above equipment, forging hammers may also be used, while the operation shall be strictly in accordance with the provisions of the technical regulations, so as to avoid cracking of the forgings and uneven organization.
2) Titanium alloy
For large titanium die forgings, hydraulic press forging is recommended. For small and medium-sized titanium alloy die forgings, forging screw press is OK. In the absence of the above equipment, forging hammers may also be used, but in this case, the operation shall be strictly in accordance with the provisions of the technical regulations, so as to avoid unqualified organization and performance.
3) Stainless steel forgings
Forging of stainless steel forgings is generally not limited by the type of forging equipment.
4) High temperature alloy forgings
For large high-temperature alloy die forgings, such as turbine disks, hydraulic press forging is recommended. For small and medium-sized titanium alloy die forgings, screw press is OK. Generally, die forging hammer die forging is not recommended.
2. According to the projected area of the forging
1) Large die forgings
For high-alloy, titanium alloy and aluminum alloy large die forgings, it is recommended to use hydraulic press forging. For structural steel and large stainless steel die forgings, you can choose hammer and die forging hammer forging for economic reasons. For extra large structural steel and stainless steel die forgings, it is recommended to use hydraulic die forging.
2) Small and medium die forgings
For medium and small die forgings of high-temperature alloys, titanium alloys and aluminum alloys, it is recommended to use screw press for die forging. Structural steel and stainless steel medium and small die forgings, you can choose die forged by mechanical press or screw forging press according to the batch and existing equipment.
3. Select according to the thickness of the forging (or the height of the blank)
1) Forgings with large forging thickness and high blank height
Hydraulic press is suitable for forging processes with long working strokes of various materials. For example, special alloy turbine disc forgings with large amount of pressing in the upsetting and die forging process, and extrusion or squeezing that requires the load to be almost constant throughout the long working stroke process.
2) Thin forgings
Die forging hammers and screw presses are suitable for die forging thin forgings, but die forging hammers are limited only to die forged stainless steel and titanium forgings. Mechanical presses and screw presses are suitable for forging high temperature alloys, titanium alloys, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys and copper alloy forgings.
4. According to the precision of forgings
1) High precision forgings
Mechanical presses and screw presses are suitable for precision die forging titanium and stainless steel blades as well as small and medium forgings such as aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys and copper alloys.
2) Forgings of general precision
Hydraulic presses and forging hammers are suitable for ordinary die forgings with general precision for die forging.
5. According to the bulk quantity and economic selection of forgings
1) Large quantities
Mechanical presses are most suitable for the production of large-scale die forgings such as automobiles, agricultural machinery, medical equipment, hardware tools and aerospace engine blades.
2) Medium batch
Forging hammers and forging screw presses are suitable for die forging of medium-volume forgings, which is most common used by manufacturers.
3) Small batch
The hydraulic press is suitable for the production of large forgings with small batch .
The above recommendations for the selection of forging equipment are based only on the characteristics of the forging press machine and the characteristics of the forgings. However, the choice of forging equipment is very complicated. Besides above selection principles, the state of the company's existing equipment, the history of the technicians and workers’ using the equipment, and the familiarity with the equipment should also be considered. The specific selection of certain alloy forgings can only meet several main principles.